Calf losses due to cold can result from both severely frost bitten parts as well as from freezing to death or hypothermia. Appropriate management can help cattle producers avoid many of these losses for those operations that have calves born during the cold season.
Frostbite is the damage to body tissues that occurs when these tissues freeze. The extremities are most at risk. Frozen ears and tails result in changes of cattle appearance but do not affect cattle performance significantly. Frozen feet generally result in a calf that must be put to sleep or will die. Occasionally teats of a recently calved cow freeze resulting in mastitis and frequently loss of milk production in at least one quarter of the udder.
Newborn calves are most at risk because they are wet and because they have a large surface area in relation to their total body mass. Calves are not fully capable of maintaining temperature the first several hours of life. Newborn calves have a circulatory system that is less able to respond to cold changes as compared to more mature animals.
Weather conditions have a great effect on the risk of frostbite and hypothermia, above and beyond just creating low temperatures. Wind is often the biggest factor. The effect of wind is often referred to as wind chill and tells how living things “feel the temperature”. Wind chill is often many degrees colder than the actual temperature. Humidity has a large effect on cold as well since humid air can take more warmth away from animals.
The surfaces on which cattle must rest also have a great effect on the risk of frostbite. If cattle must lie on snow ice or frozen ground they will lose much more body heat than if they can rest on dry bedding or grass. Snow or ice from freezing rain on calves dramatically increases heat loss.
Calves that freeze to death are unable to maintain a high enough body temperature to keep body processes working. Newborn calves have a special body tissue called “brown adipose tissue” that is designed to help them deal with cold temperatures. During cold temperatures this special fat is broken down and creates heat that helps the calf keep warm. However, very cold conditions can overcome this protective mechanism and calves die.
Intake of the first milk (colostrum) and physical activity help calves maintain and generate the heat they need for body process to work properly. Attentive mothers vigorously clean newborn calves and stimulate this activity and the nursing of colostrums. Inexperienced or less attentive dams may let a calf get cold enough so it is sluggish and hyperthermia results.
Careful attention and appropriate treatments during cold weather calving can save calves’ lives and improve profitability in tough cattle economic times.
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